Tag Archives: culture

The Elves, who are they?

The Elves are in our minds majestic beings, imbued with magic, mystery and immortality (or at least of an astonishing longevity). But what is really happening? Where does their myth begin? Especially: are they really what we believe?

Hello my Marmosets!

I know, I know, I was sooooooooo long absent … but I reassure you: “Here I am!” So you have the choice: either I tell you what I did during my half-holidays (I have a lot to tell you!), Or I speak to you about something else … then? Okay, OK… I’ll tell you about fantastic creatures … (pfff you’re really not friendly with me!).

Creature of the day, hello!

The Elves: Guardians of Nature

In fact, I realize that the word “Elf” is often used in the plural. Would it be a distortion of our imagination to perceive them thus? I think so. Try. Close your eyes and try to project an Elf into your mind. They are always imagined as a great family: “to many, we are better! “Great? Pointy ears ? With arcs perhaps? Fine? Almost immortal? Links with magic? Nature too? Do you see it ? A beautiful “Legolas” stands before you. (Do not babe too much, girls!) Is that it? Are you there? Good. If I told you that all these facts about them are not quite true? That our “literary” imagination has distorted the real image of these beings?

First of all, we must know that the origin of the Elvish myth is northern, even if they are also found in Celtic mythology.

This myth is still deeply rooted in Scandinavian folklore. Initially, they were minor divinities, linked to nature, but also to fertility.

That is, I think (this is still my personal opinion), which undoubtedly gave birth to their legendary longevity, but of course I can be wrong.

A human appearance

An elf is an anthropomorphic creature (whose appearance is human) that originally lived close to nature, was small in size and had pointed ears. The Norwegian term “Huldrefolk” refers to the “hidden people” or “vetter” a kind of earth-related “goblins”, approaching the dwarfs of northern mythology more than elves.
Their figure will be taken up again in fantasy, especially in the mythical writings of Tolkien, who then made them great characters, incredibly beautiful, imprinted with nobility and wisdom.

(Légolaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaas !)

Their attachment to nature persists, since they often live in forests. They are also given amazing magic powers and incredible longevity. In fact, humans perceive them as immortal. They will also keep their ears long and pointed. They would be incredibly agile, fast, gifted in the handling of bows and would have a piercing view. This makes them formidable hunters and warriors.
J. R. R. Tolkien, in parallel to the writing of the accounts of Middle-earth, invented a series of elvish languages ​​whose existence is not reduced to their mention in narrative; with other non elven languages ​​placed in the same imaginary world, they form the set of languages ​​of Middle-earth.
Once adults, the Elves no longer age, they never get sick. Only a serious wound (or deep grief) can cause them to die. Their astonishing longevity gives them a totally different view of the world (and life) from that of humans. In fact, they tend to view short-term adventures with disdain and indifference, as they necessarily project themselves on the “longer term”. Nevertheless, when they have a well-defined purpose, they are tenacious, with a determined determination. If they bind little friendship, it is always perennial.

It would seem that the Elves themselves would choose their first name in adulthood (about 100 years).

The Elves are generally more intelligent than humans (no, no, I will not comment), or at least endowed with greater wisdom. They possess ancestral knowledge, especially in the field of trees, plants … They live indeed very close to nature. This concept is probably derived from the Nordic and Germanic mythologies. I do not want to pass for a rambler, nevertheless, it seems to me to have said above that the Elves were minor divinities of nature. Their senses, mainly sight and hearing, are particularly refined and far superior to those of men.

The voice of the Elves is sometimes compared to the murmur of the water. In some stories, their song has a relationship to magic.

At the beginning…

In ancient texts in Norse (ancient Icelandic) the Elves are named “álfar” in the singular “álfr”. And in modern Scandinavian languages:

  • Icelandic: “álfur” – plural “álfar”, “álfafólk”;
  • Danish: “elver”, “elverfolk”, sometimes “ellefolk”, or “alf” – plural “alfer”;
  • Norwegian: “alv” – plural “alver”, “alvefolk”;
  • Swedish: ‘alv’ – plural ‘alver’, in the female ‘älva’ – plural ‘älvor’;
  • Scots: “elfen”.

Moreover, this first word “álfar” would have a proto-Indo-European origin, a prehistoric language that gave rise to the Indo-European languages. (What? I’m cheating it to death? No, not even true!). In fact, the word “alb” meaning “white” is found, for example, in Latin: “albus” which means the same thing. This linguistic “root” is found in ancient Germanic languages, but also modern: English (and Old English), Dutch (and Dutch), German (as well as Old High German and Middle High (without the letter “H” is a dead language spoken by the Goths in the Middle Ages).

Northern Mythology

Freyr, god of fertility in Nordic mythology, would be the lord of the “Alfes (Elves)”.

This leaves us immediately to think that if the myth relates “elves of light” and therefore “benevolent” there must also exist “black elves”, therefore “dark”. Be that as it may, Elves appear in various ways in northern mythology (but also in Germanic mythology). They are generally described as semi-divine beings associated with fertility (thank God Freyr) and ancestor worship.
The concept of “Elf” thus seems similar to the animist beliefs: everything is provided with soul, with spirit, even objects like a stone, or an element like the wind. The belief of the “fylgjur”: “the spirit totem” and the “vörðar”: “the protective spirit” is identical in Nordic mythology. The Elves are frequently compared to the nymphs of Greek and Roman mythology, to Vili (the northern god, brother of Odin) and to the Roussalki (close beings of the naiads, sirens, fairies or Greco-Roman wonders) of Slav mythology .
Many Germanic first names are taken from the name of the elf: Ælfric, Ælfwine, Ælfréd (modern Alfred), Alberich. It is also the case of some ancient French names of Germanic origin, such as Auberon and Aubry.
The mythologist and mythographer (Mythographer, not to be confused with mythomaniacs!) Seriously, mythography is studying … myths, not even funny, I know) Icelandic. Snorri Sturluson sometimes refers to the Nordic Dwarves as “Dark Elves”: “dökkálfar” or “black elves”: “svartálfar”. They would be blacksmiths and guardians of treasures. But this is a mistake. For Dwarves and Elves are two types of different creatures, not remaining, and moreover, in the same place. The “Dark Elves” would live in Svartalfheim while the Dwarfs would be in Nidavellir. It would therefore be a belated belief. The distinction between light Alfes (from the sky) and black Alfes (subterranean) influences the vision of these creatures. Since then, Men have been suspicious of the Black Alves, while the Clear Alves remain beneficial.
The Elves would be as closely linked to the “Æsir” (or Ases), the main gods of northern mythology, as to the “Vanir” fertility gods, but each “group” would have its own translations of words which would mark the difference of their status.

European Folklore

From the beginning of Christianization of the Germano-Scandinavians, belief in the Elves is assimilated to paganism (those who are not considered Christian or Jewish). In fact, this belief is severely opposed. The Elf then becomes a kind of demonic creature. An important amalgam is set up between Dwarves and Elves.
The British “pixies”, little winged fairies, are assimilated to “älvor” in modern Swedish or “alfer” in Danish.
The original myth of the Elves was perpetuated in European folklore as predominantly female beings who established their dwellings in hills, mounds (mounds only consisting of earth, covering a burial) or tumuli (mounds of earth and stones ). However, belief in the common people is rare in France, unlike the Scandinavian countries.

Folklore of the Germanic regions

The “dark side” is what remains most of the Elves in German folklore. Their nature would have “evolved”. They would be mischievous, mischievous. They would be the cause of diseases of cattle and people, bad dreams.

The German word for nightmare, “Albtraum or Alptraum” literally means “dream of Elf” and its archaic form “Albdruck” means “Elf pressure”.

This aspect of the Germanic Elvish belief comes from the Scandinavian belief of the “mara“: this evil spirit that provokes nightmares.

It could also come from legends about incubus (demons that take male form to abuse women in their sleep) and succubus (demons that take feminine form to seduce men during their sleep and their dream).
We find a posterity for the Elves of Germanic folklore in the tetralogy of the “Ring of the Nibelung” by the German composer Richard Wagner.Il serait rapporté que les Elfes danseraient dans les prés, surtout les nuits et les matins où la brume est dense. Ils laisseraient alors derrière eux des sortes de cercles, à l’emplacement même de leur danse ; on les appelle « älvdanser » : « danses d’elfes » ou « älvringar » : « cercle d’elfes ».

This is how many legends in the Middle Ages would have been born: nymphs, dryads, elves and gnomes would be responsible. Urinating in one of these circles is believed to cause venereal disease. Typically, these circles are traced by a multitude of small mushrooms, but they can also be traced by drawing grass stripped against the ground.
There would be several Elf peoples, such as the High Elves (Elves of Light), Elves of the Woods (Elves of the Woods), Gray Eves (or Moon Elves), Elves of Water (or Undines) … The Dark Elves, or drows, are most often the obscure counterpart of the Elves.

Some literary works …

(Incomplete list)

  • The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien;
  • The Forgotten Realms, R-A Salvatore;
  • The Annals of World Records, Terry Pratchett;
  • The Legacy, Christopher Paolini;
  • Tara Duncan, Sophie Audouin-Mamikonian;
  • The Chronicles of the Lodoss War, Ry? Mizuno (MANGA);
  • The Knights of Emerald, The Heirs of Enkidiev, Anne Robillard;
  • Aïnako, Ariane Charland;
  • Amos Daragon, Bryan Perro (comic);
  • Merry Gentry, L.K. Hamilton;
  • The legendary Patrick Sobral (comic)

Video Games

  • Warcraft;
  • The Elder Scrolls;
  • The Legend of Zelda (called Hyliens);
  • Final Fantasy;
  • Dragon Age;
  • Magic, the assembly;
  • Naheulbeuk Dungeon;
  • Dungeons and Dragons;
  • Warhammer;
  • Warhammer 40,000;
  • The world of Palladium;
  • Shadowrun;
  • Heroes of Might and Magic;
  • The Witcher.

Whether they provoke us nightmares or make us dream, the Elves will always be assimilated, for me, to allies or representations of Nature, those beings who remind men that Mother Nature also has a say and that it will not let anyone deteriorate without flinching or replying. The Elves are the spirits of this Nature that we love so much and that makes us well … provided we take care of her so that she continues to protect us and bring us her blessings.

Article written by S-P Decroix, author of The Princess of the deepest Times, from Lysons editions.

5 Steps to Improve the Memories of Your Dreams

Here is the 5 step method to improve the memories of your dreams

1. Don’t use an alarm clock that has an aggressive ring

If this is necessary for your alarm clock, use it second. Place the alarm on the first dial, softer for your alarm clock, 15 minutes before the “aggressive”. A sudden awakening surely ensures you forget your dreams.

2. Keep your eyes closed and let yourself be overwhelmed by the images and impressions of your night

Write them down or record them without judgment. You will later transcribe your dreams into your journal and decode it. For now, like a fisherman, the important thing is to go up the fish (dreams).

3. Pass back into your mind the people you know

Maybe some of them will reappear and they will have been present during your dreams, which is very likely. Science tells us that we only dream of faces known or encountered in the course of our lives … It is therefore very likely that you have dreamed of a face that is close to you! Check out!

4. Keep your eyes closed and take the different positions you take when you sleep

The fact of resuming physically these different positions gives the possibility to make reappear dream memories …

5. Moisturize yourself!

Before going to bed, place a glass of water next to your bed and drink a sip, telling yourself that you will remember your dreams when you wake up. The first action to do in the morning, keeping your eyes closed, if possible, is to take a sip and let the dreams come to the surface of your consciousness.
I like to sleep personally, with a headband to cut off the morning light and allow me to be still in the privacy of my dreams. This act gives me the chance to internalize myself and not get out too quickly of this state. I feel that the headband is part of my “dream uniform”, now you find yours and adopt the appropriate rituals, like those I have presented here, to remember easily your journeys in the dream dimension !

Article written by Patrick Tremblay, author of Onirikk, Volume 1: the last of the Saïwa, available from Lysons editions.

The Interview of Morgyane Kiinzah

Today we make a Zoom on Morgyane Kiinzah, author of Engrenages (Gears), published by Lysons since February 15, 2017.

She lent herself to the game of 7 questions we asked her so that you can know her more!

1 / How did you get the idea to write Gears and why?

Gears is the fruit of a promise made, it is the respect of a given word. I have traveled a lot and I have also had several meetings but there are some meetings that are jostling your whole existence and Gears was born in this way.

God does not do anything at random as it is said: he has therefore put on my way beautiful people at the right time, and since: Engrenages is slowly but surely following his destiny.

2 / What is true and what is romanticized in Gears?

Gears is a chain of events, a link that links the heroine to all the other girls in the novel and they can not be dissociated.
Everything is true, every event related is real to one difference: I deliberately chose to write the end as I wrote it in order to draw the alarm bell on these anonymous dramas. Domestic violence is becoming more frequent; they continue to grow with their share of tragedies. Clandestine immigration: we talk about it all the time, but we never speak, if not very rarely, of its undercurrents, its tragedies that live foreign people in an irregular situation.

3 / To write to you, it is …

to exist, to hope is to heal evils, to live.

4 / What do you have in common with the heroine of your novel, Kafue?

(Laughs …)

We may think that we are naive, but we have just a heart and soul of a child. We know how to see the good side in every being that destiny puts on our way.
We are persistent and determined and can rise when we fall. We do not make failure a weakness but a weapon that forges us and rebuilds us.

5 / If you could stop one or more gears other than those described in your novel, what would they be?

I would like to answer this question but it would announce immediately and in a rather hasty way the colors of my next novel.
Will we discuss it again? Promised!
(Laughs …)

6 / You have made a career in music, if you were to attribute a musical genre to Gears, what would it be and why?

I wrote a song that bears the name of the heroine of Gears: “Kafue.”
Everything started from there, in reality. Before writing Engrenages, I thought of denouncing these plagues in song. And it is rather soft and calm, transposed in a contemporary way, as I like. Gears would thus be in the image of ” Timbuktu Fasso ” of Fatoumata Diawara.

7 / In life, what are the three things that matter most to you?

I give a great respect and a place of choice to the Divine Creator.
It is quite personal, but often incomprehensible to some of my relationship with this Supreme Goodness. But for me and my family members: she does great things.
If I must therefore cite three “things” which are dear to my heart, I will say:
  • God,
  • The family,
  • The friends.
Thank you all.
Thank you for your support.

Interview carried out on August 14, 2017 by Leandro De Carvalho for Lysons éditions. Thanks to Morgyane Kiinzah for answering our questions!

Join Morgyane Kiinzah on her Facebook page, or on the official page of Gears.


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[Zoom] on the novel

Zoom on the novel

Even the most reluctant to read one day had a novel in his hands. Whether it is because of a reading imposed by the school or any other occasion. Indeed, the novel is the most widely read genre in France. But, what exactly is a novel?

It is a literary genre, characterized by a fictional narrative, and which has multiple subgenres (fantasy, detective, science fiction …).

Origins of the novel

The term “novel” (Latin vulgar) means a Romanic translation of a text written in Latin. French literature born of the Strasbourg Oath, first text written in “novel”. This pact (of legal value) between the grandsons of Charlemagne was written in 842. Before that date, all the texts were written in Latin.

In the Middle Ages, in the twelfth century, the novel was written in verse. He thus evokes, through stories fabulous and close to the epic, the questions that concern most people at the time. In the 13th century, the worms became proses in the adventures of Lancelot du Lac. From this point on, the novel genre really develops.

The novel knows its hours of glory since the nineteenth century, whether historical, adventure, science fiction …

“Reading a novel throws light on life.” (Louis Aragon)

See you soon for a new “Zoom on …”

Maud Wlek, author of Nayra available on lysonseditions.com

The Phoenix: the Immortal Firebird

Many myths, fantastic creatures have gone through centuries of history and thus mark our memories almost immutably. It is an animal whose myth is as old as its legendary longevity: the Phoenix.

The Phoenix: the Immortal Firebird

Hello my Marmosets!

I hope I missed you? Yes ? No ? Never mind ! I am still incrusted! Today, I come to make you a little “chat” about this animal that fascinates me as much as the dragon.

The phoenix is a legendary bird, resembling the heron, which has a long longevity that is characterized by its ability to reborn after consuming its own flames. It thus symbolizes the cycles of death, resurrection, but also of nobility. For the latter, I suppose, but as usual, it is only my humble opinion, that this is due to its majestic, almost imperial aspect.

The phoenix, or phoenix, comes from the ancient Greek φοῖνιξ / phoînix, meaning: “purple red”.

This fabulous bird was originally from Arabia and attached to the cult of the Sun in ancient Egypt, where it was also venerated. The narratives describe the phoenix as a sort of eagle adorned with a plumage of brilliant colors. Certainly because of this attachment to the worship of the sun. It is also probably the reason why, it remains in our minds like “the bird of fire” par excellence. When we think “phoenix” do we not immediately think of “immortal” and “fire“?

The phoenix can live for a long time, for centuries (the poor, it must be bored firmly); no tradition mentions an existence of less than five hundred years (nothing but that!). Whereas the shock for him is that suddenly our friend the phoenix reproduces himself: when he feels his end arrive, he builds a nest of aromatic branches and incense (he has the taste … or ought I to say smell), sets it on fire and burns itself in its flames. From the ashes of this pyre arises the new phoenix.

Georges Cuvier (anatomist and paleontologist) saw in him the golden pheasant. It has also been identified with birds of paradise and flamingos.

As with any mystical and fabulous creature, the phoenix has crossed several civilizations, and thus several myths. It is for this reason that we find birds similar to the one that is anchored in our current imagination in the mythologies: Persian under the name of “Simurgh” or “Rokh”, Chinese under the name of “Fenghuang” which means “immortal bird”, Native American with “Thunderbird” or aboriginal in Australia with “Minka bird”.

Through myths

As for the Persian phoenix, the bird has a connotation of lightness, the quintessence of things and beings. Here the animal incarnates the thought opposed to matter, the inner search for man, his “deep self, his spirit.

The Egyptian phoenix (the bénou) and the Greek are the oldest.

Herodotus (Greek historian and geographer) describes it thus:

“It is only in their country that every five hundred years […] its wings are partly golden and partly red, and it is entirely in conformity with the eagle as to the figure and the detailed description …”

However, the point of view of Herodotus contains several inconsistencies. Notably the burial of the father, knowing that there would be only one at a time.

The Moderns (who thought that literary creation consisted of innovating and militating for literature adapted to contemporary times and new artistic forms) saw it more like the Egyptian benou: a heron perched on the benben stone, the sacred stone of the temple solar of Heliopolis on which the first rays of the sun fall. The bird would then be the incarnation of the soul of Re or also the manifestation of Osiris.

As for the Roman phoenix for Ovidus, Pliny and Tacitus, the phoenix decomposes to be reborn, whereas in Martial and Stace the theme of the pyre and its spices appears analogous to the funerary practices of the Romans.

The effigy of the phoenix appears on the coins of Trajan to Constantine I (Roman emperors) and his sons.

Whatever the myths, the legendary phoenix is intimately linked to fire, either by solar attachment or by its own flames.

And religion in all that?

The Midrash Rabbah (set of ten aggadic midrashim collections on the five Torah Books and the five Rolls) reports that when Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree of knowledge all the animals also ate fruit forbidden, and that death was decreed for them all, except one bird called Khôlעוף החול” who did not eat it. That is why the phoenix lives forever. And Rabbi Yannai (or Rabbi Jannai, a wise Jew who lived in the third century) explains that his life takes place as follows: he lives a period of a thousand years at the end of which a fire bursts from his nest and consumes him an egg, and from this egg it grows again.

The phoenix is ​​also one of the most widespread Christian symbols. Numerous literary sources, profane and Christian, evoke the legend of the phoenix. Its symbolism is probably Stoic inspiration: the eternal fire destroys everything and brings it all back to life. It is the symbol of the Resurrection. The Christians have brought to light all that in nature could prepare the acceptance of this mystery. The legend of the phoenix contributes to it, as does the cock that announces the new day: a metaphor for the Christian who awaits the day when Christ returns. From that moment he occupied a prominent position on the bell-tower of the churches.

Whether in myths, religion, or even literature, the phoenix fuels our imagination in a marked way. He is, with the dragon, one of the few fantastic creatures to have not undergone any real physical change. It remains over the years as we imagine it: a kind of flaming eagle that is reborn from its ashes.

Its traces even go back to genesis, you are entitled, my Marmosets, to ask me these questions: has it really existed? Does he exist today? Obviously, I can not answer you. But, as for many of you, I remain passionate about all these wonderful creatures. I do not care if they are real or not, what matters to me is that they make us live our imagination, and that, along with the sirens and all the others, makes them , in my opinion, truly immortal.


The Phoenix in the manga

  • “Phoenix, the bird of fire”, by Osamu Tezuka

  • Ikki, character of “Saint Seya”

  • Marco, character of “One Piece”

  • “The Wings of the Phoenix”, Lim Jin Ju

  • “Phoenix”, Osamu Tezuka


The Phoenix in Music

  • PHÉNIX, the French Heavy Metal band


The Phoenix in Science

  • Phénix (nuclear), the fast breeder reactor located in Marcoule (Gard).

  • Phoenix is a constellation of the southern hemisphere.


The Phoenix in Literature

  • “The Order of the Phoenix”, (Harry Potter) JK Rowling, [NB: Fumesck, the Phoenix of Dumbledore, however appears before this volume.]

  • “The Metamorphoses of the Phoenix in Ancient Christianity,” in Folia Electronica Classica No. 8, Paul-Augustin Deproost.

  • The Bestiary of Christ, Milano, Arche, Louis Charbonneau-Lassay.

  • “The colorful phoenix (from Herodotus to Ambrose of Milan)”, Bulletin of the Association Guillaume Budé vol. 1, Laurence Gosserez

  • “The creation of the world and the phoenix”, Laurence Gosserez.

  • “The Birds Conference,” (Persian tale of the thirteenth century), Sufi Farid al-Din Attar of Nishapur (poet).

  • “The Phoenix Trilogy”, Bernard Simonay

  • “Cycle of the Phoenix”, Sébastien Pennes

  • “The Phoenix Guards”, Steven Brust


See you soon for new discoveries always more fabulous …

S-P Decroix, Author of The Princess Of The Deepest Times.

[Zoom] Focus on the hero in literature

Today, we meet for a new series of articles: “Zoom on…”. Regularly, “Zoom on…” will make a quick point on a topic related to literature. And I decided to start with the one who carries the novel throughout the chapters: the hero.

The hero or the “super” hero

The hero – as we understand him today – is a human or supernatural person, showing courage and self-denial. He is distinguished from the ancient hero, whose etymological definition describes him as a demigod.

It is mainly from the nineteenth century that the hero became more realistic.

Indeed, he no longer possesses the nobility or the glorious side of ancient and medieval heroes. On the contrary, his journey, full of feelings, could be that of the reader. It is in this that it is appreciated. It is realistic, even ordinary.

Through its history, it is easy to identify with him, according to its progress, its reflections, its doubts.

Depending on the genre of the novel, the hero will embody our desire for exploration, social ascension or will be subjected to the throes of passion.

Finally,

The hero in literature unconsciously awakens the one who is dormant in us.

It’s never too late to let him express himself, and who knows, you could one day be the one who gave inspiration to an author who, in turn, breathed life into a hero through Literature !

See you soon for a new “Zoom“!

Article written by Maud Wlek, author of Nayra.

Did the vampires really exist?

Vampires are emblematic figures that form an integral part of our culture. These are mythological creatures entered into legend since the dawn of time… Discover their origins and where to find them through this exciting article! Did the vampires really exist?

It’s S-P DECROIX that tells you better about it…

Hello girls, boys and marmosets!

What? There are no boys among you? Ah! Ah! I know, I know, not even funny! Alexia told me I was funny. It’s really nice of you Alexia, but my sense of humor is to see again. So, from today, I will call you “marmosets“.

So, after my article on the dragons I asked myself: “But what am I going to tell them to marmosets next time? “Ah! If you knew all that crosses my mind, you would take your legs to your necks! In short, let’s go back to our monsters and various creatures.

“What’s she going to talk the lady?”

(OK the sentence is super null, but hey, you will have to do with!)

After jargoning about the “dragon”, I decided to talk to you about “creatures of the night”, but which one? No! Not John Travolta! So? You found ? Yes? No?

The Vampires!

Origins

Yes, with their pointed teeth and their pronounced taste for blood, vampires are the creatures of the night par excellence! The origins of this legendary creature are found in ancient myths and diverse throughout the world, but become popular mainly on the European continent.

“Vampire” comes from the German “Vampir”, which comes from the Hungarian “vámpir”, which in most Slavic languages is a word designating a bat.

The vampire is part of the great “ghost” family. According to the different folklore and the most common superstition, this undead man feeds on the blood of the living to derive his life force. Its victims die of having been emptied of their blood or they undergo certain conditions (blood exchange, placing underground with its “genitor” are some of the best-known examples), in vampires, but only after their death: “they die and live again!”

It is Arnold Paole, a Serb, who was the first to be called “vampire” in the eighteenth century.

You may think that it is the one that everyone calls “Dracula” who was the first vampire, but not… Vlad III Basarab, of his real name, knows indeed an important celebrity during his lifetime: the merchants Saxons of Transylvania and the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvin, make him a cruel ruler who impales his enemies, which earned him nicknames such as “The Impaler” or “Drăculea” (“son of the devil” or “son of the dragon”). Inspired by the nickname of Vlad III Basarab, the figure of the Count of Dracula was invented by Bram Stocker for his novel in 1897, which is why Vlad III Basarab is now assimilated to a vampire but he wasn’t one!

The contemporary myth of the vampire would be a sort of “superposition” of several other supernatural creatures from various European folklore, especially Slavic. Some authors have enumerated precursors: spirits, demons, or ghosts in turn, possessed or not (incomplete list): the “visitor”, the “hungry”, the “nightmare”, the “strangler”, the “chewer” (well yes, they chew us gently the neck with their small pointed canines… ok… really must I stop!) And finally the returning to animal form (Bat? Hum … no comment).

Characteristics of Vampires

This undead creature is universally known to feed on the blood of the living as soon as night falls, for, as I said before, to take their vital force and remain immortal! In fact, this is not entirely accurate, as it is for the Vampire to no longer be subject to old age. Other elements of folklore are well entrenched in our minds: the coffin in which he takes refuge during the day to rest and the cemetery: “let’s go home!” (Honestly each his “trip”, me personally, the cemeteries at night, it’s not my trip…).

In many legends, the vampire also feeds on human excrements and flesh, including his own: it is the automation that includes not only his flesh but also his clothes (if you had just eaten, excuse). This detail seems to be verified by old records of stories of shrouds found chewed. (I warned you: Vampires love to chew on).

Of course, what also characterizes the Vampire is his legendary pair of … what? From sharp canines! (Stop having ideas misplaced!) The clothing appearance, it would have been built in the cinematographic and theatrical folklore, in particular his famous cloak.

Some mystical powers are also given to him:

He hypnotizes his victims, seduces them, reads in thoughts, changes into mist, bat, sometimes in wolf or, according to legends, he controls them.

It is also this particular link with the wolf that makes that generally when one thinks of the Vampire, we often associate the Werewolf.

It seems that killing a “master vampire” or a “vampire-genitor” frees those he has transformed or sometimes his children die with him.

The Vampire if he becomes more powerful, fast, and resistant with age, would be “indisposed” by the smell of garlic, wild rose or hawthorn. Some objects would be able to repel it: the mythical crucifix, the rosary, the holy water and the mirror (since it cannot be reflected in it). He cannot walk on consecrated soils (Church, etc.). The legend also says that a Vampire cannot enter a house without being invited.

Bram Stoker’s work, Dracula, was first published in 1897 and is still popular today.

As the Vampire is an undead, he is already dead! So to kill him, it was necessary to rack one’s brains! (Ah, Ah!) Of course, decapitation is the most effective way to eliminate it, followed by a stake in the heart, a nail in the head (definitely) or a cremation in good form!

References to the Vampire

(Incomplete lists, you understand that they are too long…)


Literature:

  • Dracula by Bram Stocker.
  • The Vampyre by John Stagg
  • The Vampire by John William Polidori
  • The Vourdalak Family (published in Tolstoy’s Stories of the Living Dead)
  • History of the Pale Lady, novel by Alexandre Dumas (1849).
  • The Knight of Darkness by Paul Féval (1860)
  • Lokis of Prosper Mérimée.
  • The Horla (in its first version) by Guy de Maupassant
  • The Parasite of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  • Vampire Chronicles, Interview with a vampire by Anne Rice

Movies:

  • Nosferatu the vampire by Friedrich Murnau, in 1922
  • Vampyr, or the strange adventure of David Gray in 1932
  • The Dracula Nightmare, by Terence Fisher in 1958.
  • Polanski’s Ball of the Vampires in 1967 (parody)
  • Tony Scott’s Predators in 1983
  • Vampire, did you say vampire ? Tom Holland in 1985 and Tommy
  • Lee Wallace in 1988 Dracula by Francis Ford Coppola in 1992
  • Interview with a vampire by Neil Jordan in 1994
  • Craig Gillespie’s Fright Night in 2011.

Cinematographic and television series:

  • The Blade Saga
  • The Underworld Saga
  • The Twilight Saga
  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer
  • Angel
  • Vampires Diaries
  • Supernatural (Ahhhhhh the best series in my senses, which has many other creatures!)
  • True Blood
  • Being Human
  • The Clan of the Damned
  • The Originals (I love it!)

Mangas / Comics:

  • Vampire Hunter D (manga)
  • Vampire Princess Miyu (manga)
  • Vampire Knight (manga)
  • Hellsing (manga)
  • Requiem, Chevalier Vampire (BD)
  • The Prince of the Night (BD)
  • 30 days of night (comics)

Video Games:

  • Castlevania (since 1986),
  • Legacy of Kain (since 1996)
  • Bram Stoker’s Dracula, in 1993.
  • The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion
  • The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind
  • Dracula: Resurrection, Dracula 2: The Last Sanctuary, Dracula 3: The Way of the Dragon
  • The Masquerade (roleplaying)
  • Dracula’s Fury (board game).

We may never really know if the vampires existed as they are described to us, but is there smoke without fire? One thing is certain: those who inspired these creatures did indeed exist, but they undoubtedly renounced their immortality in order to rest in peace! Their legend, in any case, it, continues to persist in time… for eternity!

Article written by S-P DECROIX.

Is a writer what he writes?

I am what I write.

Is the writer really what he writes? It is a phrase I like to affirm and to which many writers could identify… or not!

Indeed, when this sentence was read, at first sight, one could say that there is something to be afraid when one reads certain writers! For, not everyone writes romance novels or heroic and epic adventures! What is the part of truth and invention in a novel, a book? Where is the essence of the author who completed his work? Is a book just an exercise in style? What does he really reveal about his author and about us? Let’s look at these different points together, and it is a writer who speaks to you! This new approach to writing could well change your look at reading …
Are you sure you keep reading what follows?

All right…

A truth disguised or highlighted

What is true and what is false in what a writer can write? The writer is known to know perfectly how to speak Molière’s language, letters and rhetoric, so it is perfectly legitimate to ask himself whether he is authentic and whether everything he writes reflects the truth or Is a pure exercise in style and imagination?

Although the writer has a great deal of knowledge and verb, he is skilled at expressing in writing what he may not be able to say or reveal by word of mouth. Others, on the other hand, excel in both writing and speaking, but what matters is that he has things to say and a message to convey.

If some writers manage to communicate a clear and clear message, for others it is very difficult to understand at first reading what they meant! However, can he write about subjects that he does not know or feel intimately? Can he actually put words on what he has never experienced personally? Of course, you would tell me immediately! And I will say no. And I explain myself!

When a writer undertakes the writing of a fiction, it has a whole work of observation, investigation and understanding before approaching a subject that is particularly close to his heart. This is a crucial step for the credibility of a universe and the atmosphere it must generate. The illusion must be perfect! This is what makes a work appreciated by the reader: its striking realism, as if we were immersed in the heart of the story and we felt exactly the emotions of the characters; We are not only readers but actors of history; We identify with certain characters, we empathize with them, history makes us live emotions and opens us to understanding.

Everything we feel at the moment of our reading is closely related to the emotions that we could live in real situations! The same goes for the writer when he immortalizes his emotions on paper. As incredible as it may be: everything written by an authentic writer is deeply felt, at different scales certainly, but he cannot share a feeling or an event that would not first have reached his mind in some way ! In this he consciously or unconsciously associates a fictitious or semi-fictitious event with a memory or an emotion that he himself would have lived in his own life. As a film actor imbues himself with his own emotions to embody a character on the screen and give the impression of a perfect illusion, the writer must necessarily soak up his personal history to bring into the world a universe that will be authentic, not by its form, but by the depth with which the writer has chosen the right words to immerse us in the reality he has created in all sincerity. He can not give what he does not have intrinsically.

What is true in any writer’s work is the authenticity with which he shares his emotions. He does not need to have literally experienced what his story tells, but by writing it he transposes his feelings and feels them strongly about the present moment, along with the reader. Exactly as in a film, with an infinite richness of details and an unparalleled freedom of imagination! And that’s what makes the magic of writing! The reader fully appropriates history, transposing its own psychic projections onto those already transcribed. Thus, the reader puts familiar faces on characters that are agreeable to him and unpleasant faces on those who displease him, all this is done in an unconscious way, but actively participates in the pluridimensional character of the work!

A book is always born a second time in the mind of the reader. And it will be like this eternally, is not it magnificent?

A book does not just read, it lives! Although everything is not “real” (in our physical dimension) and the result of the fruit of the imagination, the materialization of its universe resulting from the psyche by words makes it real in the dimension of our imaginary and palpable even in our regions !

Beyond Words…

The authenticity, the very essence of the author, what is deep within himself, often hides between the lines! We might even assert the following phrases, as I myself maintain:

Tell me what you write, I’ll tell you who you are. Tell me what you like to read, I will tell you what you aspire to!

For me, writing transcends speech.

Why?

The writing style of the writer is very revealing of his personality; He does not need to speak, his writing does it in his place. Through it, an infinite amount of information is communicated to us voluntarily or not. Indeed, the way in which one word is used rather than another, to use one phrase rather than another, and to assemble the sentences to one another, reflects the author’s way of handling the verb; Perhaps with simplicity, subtlety, on a mystic wat, meticulousness, intellectuality or complexity. He can not express himself otherwise than what he can not be himself! It seems so obvious. Even if he decides to use terms that he would not normally use in everyday life or to create a pastiche or a parody, if he does it is because he has everything to Makes the abilities and it is a facet of himself that he prefers to turn into derision!

The writer is not fixed to a single register, just as man keeps evolving over time, he also evolves through his writings and the events he lives. The most important, and the most revealing, about himself is the message he has to convey to us.

Why did he write his work and what did he want to tell us through it?

It is no coincidence that we like to study or comment on texts in literature; to raise the veil or to try to understand what a writer does not express in his writings is the essence of the writer. The essence of the writer is both in what he tells us and what he does not tell us! What he tells us and what he keeps silent about is extremely important and meaningful! The ideas he shares have reached him and found refuge in him, feeling a need or a duty to transpose them black and white, to make us share. And if they have found in him a hand disposed to be at their service, it is because at bottom his heart has been sensitive, touched, aligned with the same vibration as this idea or felt the need to transpose them. This can not be the result of chance and it is in this that a reading is exciting and could be the subject of a thorough psychoanalytic study! We read what is said and both we reflect on what is implied and not explicitly stated. There lies the genius of a work. Every book has an important message and often offers us answers to the questions we posed consciously or unconsciously through the verb of an author who expresses for us what we needed to hear to unlock a personal situation Or orient us towards the right choice, the right attitude to adopt in a decision that we would have to take…

Each book speaks to us and reveals to us, just as every written line is the materialization of the vibratory wave emanated by the writer himself at the moment when he writes it. That’s the magic of writing! And it is doubtless this authenticity, this spontaneity that makes the pleasure of reading perpetuates through the centuries and propels authors to a resounding success, succeeding in vibrating with the same intensity that at the time of their writing of the millions of readers around the world!

What does a book tell us about its author and about ourselves?

Books are rich in meaning. This is what makes every work an immeasurable treasure. A book has several readings and as many possible interpretations as human beings on Earth! An authentic writer is necessarily open-hearted! What does a book about its author reveal? And about ourselves?

Only he holds the key to all the mysteries that reign over him, but he can not hand it over to others, for he is the guardian of his psychic and social stability. Its secret garden allows it to make it bloom more beautiful to the delight of those who will want to venture there by reading his books and what he will tell us…

Each book has a soul. A book is a heart that beats. A book is love materialized by writing.

A book is a part of oneself that one finds. It is an inestimable gift that writers offer us in the writing of their work when they are procured, for they not only give themselves up, but deliver us from our preoccupations to bring us back to ourselves and to one of the shortest paths to love: empathy.

The real question to ask is, how far do we want to go in the author’s intimacy and how far are we ready to plunge deep within ourselves?

Writing is an act of love, issued without expecting anything in return. Reading is the best act we can do to continue to spread love and bring us closer to our essence. There are secrets they will probably never reveal to us, but if we keep our eyes open, we could perfectly read between the lines and find out what the book has to say…

Each reading is a prelude to a revelation.

What if the reader was also what he read? There is also reason to reflect on the question! In the meantime, take care of your readings and keep your mind open to the messages a book wants to communicate to you! A book never falls into our hands by chance…

Article written by Leandro De Carvalho, author of Living In Harmony.

A great mystery: where does writing come from?

Writing: the mysterious invention that allowed evolution!

Imagine a world without writing… Impossible, you would say! And for good reason: we need it every day! Let us now see how it was born and all its benefits over humanity…

The article on the Fantastic you very much liked, I am delighted. It was a question of evoking the origins of a universe that carries the Nayra saga. Starting from this momentum of origins, I would like to talk with you today about those we particularly love, readers and authors: writing.


What is writing?

Let’s start with the basics: what is writing? It is a means of communication, representing language, through the inscription of signs on various media. Each culture has its own graphic, but respects the same structure: vocabulary, speech, semantics, grammar. A writing system is an organized, language-based method for storing and transmitting messages. These systems can be classified into three categories: semmasiographies (although specialists do not agree to consider them as scriptures), logographic writings and syllabic scriptures.

Where does the writing come from?

According to some, Prehistory ends with the birth of writing. Historically, writing was born 6000 years ago, in Mesopotamia and Egypt, and almost simultaneously, but nevertheless differentiated. However, the recent development of literacy studies leads to a reassessment of the dates of writing. The development of writing has undoubtedly been influenced by pragmatic requirements such as the codification of laws, the exchange of information, the recording of history, and the keeping of financial accounts. Thus, writing allowed the preservation of history.

The alphabet is a system of writing, composed of a set of symbols. “The oldest traces of the ancestor of all the present alphabets are located in the Sinai desert around the fifteenth century BC. J.-C “(Wikipedia source).


Some authors of fantasy and science fiction have invented an imaginary alphabet to develop their universes: the tengwar (The Lord of the Rings, J.R.R. Tolkien), the Enochian (John Dee) …

Some religious systems saw writing as a threat to oral transmission and the existing order. Moreover, according to an ancient Egyptian myth taken up by Platon in the Phaedrus, writing and language were invented by the god Thot, nicknamed the “lord of time”; Considered as the one who holds knowledge and transmits it, as the incarnation of intelligence and speech, charged with transmitting his unlimited knowledge, he would have invented writing to do this! Writing would thus aim to restore order, notably by forming legal systems, to preserve history and to spread knowledge.


The impact of writing

Writing has had a strong cultural and social impact. These effects will be multiplied with the mechanization of writing by printing. It is only necessary to note all the works which are sold by millions in the world and which have a considerable influence on our culture and our way of thinking about life and the world.

The Bible, for example, has passed over 2500 million copies throughout history; The Little Red Book has sold more than 900 million copies and the Koran has more than 800 million copies! These three books have been the most sold in the world for centuries and have never been dethroned until now! These writings have a direct impact on our way of life, our way of thinking and acting.

According to linguists, out of about 3,000 languages listed in the world, hardly a hundred are written.


In conclusion, I find it exciting to say that despite the technologies we have, we are at the moment not sure about the appearance of writing. Each new discovery can challenge the history that we took for granted. Still today, writing remains a great mystery because no one really knows how it appeared … only certainty: without it, we would have a hard time explaining the universe, life and the world, to communicate , To immortalize our memories, to entertain us, to express our emotions, our feelings, to develop our imagination and to leave traces to help the future generations, because writing is what makes us human beings at the forefront of evolution.

“Writing is the painting of the voice,” Voltaire.

Article written by Maud Wlek, author of Nayra.