Category Archives: The culture minute

The Elves, who are they?

The Elves are in our minds majestic beings, imbued with magic, mystery and immortality (or at least of an astonishing longevity). But what is really happening? Where does their myth begin? Especially: are they really what we believe?

Hello my Marmosets!

I know, I know, I was sooooooooo long absent … but I reassure you: “Here I am!” So you have the choice: either I tell you what I did during my half-holidays (I have a lot to tell you!), Or I speak to you about something else … then? Okay, OK… I’ll tell you about fantastic creatures … (pfff you’re really not friendly with me!).

Creature of the day, hello!

The Elves: Guardians of Nature

In fact, I realize that the word “Elf” is often used in the plural. Would it be a distortion of our imagination to perceive them thus? I think so. Try. Close your eyes and try to project an Elf into your mind. They are always imagined as a great family: “to many, we are better! “Great? Pointy ears ? With arcs perhaps? Fine? Almost immortal? Links with magic? Nature too? Do you see it ? A beautiful “Legolas” stands before you. (Do not babe too much, girls!) Is that it? Are you there? Good. If I told you that all these facts about them are not quite true? That our “literary” imagination has distorted the real image of these beings?

First of all, we must know that the origin of the Elvish myth is northern, even if they are also found in Celtic mythology.

This myth is still deeply rooted in Scandinavian folklore. Initially, they were minor divinities, linked to nature, but also to fertility.

That is, I think (this is still my personal opinion), which undoubtedly gave birth to their legendary longevity, but of course I can be wrong.

A human appearance

An elf is an anthropomorphic creature (whose appearance is human) that originally lived close to nature, was small in size and had pointed ears. The Norwegian term “Huldrefolk” refers to the “hidden people” or “vetter” a kind of earth-related “goblins”, approaching the dwarfs of northern mythology more than elves.
Their figure will be taken up again in fantasy, especially in the mythical writings of Tolkien, who then made them great characters, incredibly beautiful, imprinted with nobility and wisdom.

(Légolaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaas !)

Their attachment to nature persists, since they often live in forests. They are also given amazing magic powers and incredible longevity. In fact, humans perceive them as immortal. They will also keep their ears long and pointed. They would be incredibly agile, fast, gifted in the handling of bows and would have a piercing view. This makes them formidable hunters and warriors.
J. R. R. Tolkien, in parallel to the writing of the accounts of Middle-earth, invented a series of elvish languages ​​whose existence is not reduced to their mention in narrative; with other non elven languages ​​placed in the same imaginary world, they form the set of languages ​​of Middle-earth.
Once adults, the Elves no longer age, they never get sick. Only a serious wound (or deep grief) can cause them to die. Their astonishing longevity gives them a totally different view of the world (and life) from that of humans. In fact, they tend to view short-term adventures with disdain and indifference, as they necessarily project themselves on the “longer term”. Nevertheless, when they have a well-defined purpose, they are tenacious, with a determined determination. If they bind little friendship, it is always perennial.

It would seem that the Elves themselves would choose their first name in adulthood (about 100 years).

The Elves are generally more intelligent than humans (no, no, I will not comment), or at least endowed with greater wisdom. They possess ancestral knowledge, especially in the field of trees, plants … They live indeed very close to nature. This concept is probably derived from the Nordic and Germanic mythologies. I do not want to pass for a rambler, nevertheless, it seems to me to have said above that the Elves were minor divinities of nature. Their senses, mainly sight and hearing, are particularly refined and far superior to those of men.

The voice of the Elves is sometimes compared to the murmur of the water. In some stories, their song has a relationship to magic.

At the beginning…

In ancient texts in Norse (ancient Icelandic) the Elves are named “álfar” in the singular “álfr”. And in modern Scandinavian languages:

  • Icelandic: “álfur” – plural “álfar”, “álfafólk”;
  • Danish: “elver”, “elverfolk”, sometimes “ellefolk”, or “alf” – plural “alfer”;
  • Norwegian: “alv” – plural “alver”, “alvefolk”;
  • Swedish: ‘alv’ – plural ‘alver’, in the female ‘älva’ – plural ‘älvor’;
  • Scots: “elfen”.

Moreover, this first word “álfar” would have a proto-Indo-European origin, a prehistoric language that gave rise to the Indo-European languages. (What? I’m cheating it to death? No, not even true!). In fact, the word “alb” meaning “white” is found, for example, in Latin: “albus” which means the same thing. This linguistic “root” is found in ancient Germanic languages, but also modern: English (and Old English), Dutch (and Dutch), German (as well as Old High German and Middle High (without the letter “H” is a dead language spoken by the Goths in the Middle Ages).

Northern Mythology

Freyr, god of fertility in Nordic mythology, would be the lord of the “Alfes (Elves)”.

This leaves us immediately to think that if the myth relates “elves of light” and therefore “benevolent” there must also exist “black elves”, therefore “dark”. Be that as it may, Elves appear in various ways in northern mythology (but also in Germanic mythology). They are generally described as semi-divine beings associated with fertility (thank God Freyr) and ancestor worship.
The concept of “Elf” thus seems similar to the animist beliefs: everything is provided with soul, with spirit, even objects like a stone, or an element like the wind. The belief of the “fylgjur”: “the spirit totem” and the “vörðar”: “the protective spirit” is identical in Nordic mythology. The Elves are frequently compared to the nymphs of Greek and Roman mythology, to Vili (the northern god, brother of Odin) and to the Roussalki (close beings of the naiads, sirens, fairies or Greco-Roman wonders) of Slav mythology .
Many Germanic first names are taken from the name of the elf: Ælfric, Ælfwine, Ælfréd (modern Alfred), Alberich. It is also the case of some ancient French names of Germanic origin, such as Auberon and Aubry.
The mythologist and mythographer (Mythographer, not to be confused with mythomaniacs!) Seriously, mythography is studying … myths, not even funny, I know) Icelandic. Snorri Sturluson sometimes refers to the Nordic Dwarves as “Dark Elves”: “dökkálfar” or “black elves”: “svartálfar”. They would be blacksmiths and guardians of treasures. But this is a mistake. For Dwarves and Elves are two types of different creatures, not remaining, and moreover, in the same place. The “Dark Elves” would live in Svartalfheim while the Dwarfs would be in Nidavellir. It would therefore be a belated belief. The distinction between light Alfes (from the sky) and black Alfes (subterranean) influences the vision of these creatures. Since then, Men have been suspicious of the Black Alves, while the Clear Alves remain beneficial.
The Elves would be as closely linked to the “Æsir” (or Ases), the main gods of northern mythology, as to the “Vanir” fertility gods, but each “group” would have its own translations of words which would mark the difference of their status.

European Folklore

From the beginning of Christianization of the Germano-Scandinavians, belief in the Elves is assimilated to paganism (those who are not considered Christian or Jewish). In fact, this belief is severely opposed. The Elf then becomes a kind of demonic creature. An important amalgam is set up between Dwarves and Elves.
The British “pixies”, little winged fairies, are assimilated to “älvor” in modern Swedish or “alfer” in Danish.
The original myth of the Elves was perpetuated in European folklore as predominantly female beings who established their dwellings in hills, mounds (mounds only consisting of earth, covering a burial) or tumuli (mounds of earth and stones ). However, belief in the common people is rare in France, unlike the Scandinavian countries.

Folklore of the Germanic regions

The “dark side” is what remains most of the Elves in German folklore. Their nature would have “evolved”. They would be mischievous, mischievous. They would be the cause of diseases of cattle and people, bad dreams.

The German word for nightmare, “Albtraum or Alptraum” literally means “dream of Elf” and its archaic form “Albdruck” means “Elf pressure”.

This aspect of the Germanic Elvish belief comes from the Scandinavian belief of the “mara“: this evil spirit that provokes nightmares.

It could also come from legends about incubus (demons that take male form to abuse women in their sleep) and succubus (demons that take feminine form to seduce men during their sleep and their dream).
We find a posterity for the Elves of Germanic folklore in the tetralogy of the “Ring of the Nibelung” by the German composer Richard Wagner.Il serait rapporté que les Elfes danseraient dans les prés, surtout les nuits et les matins où la brume est dense. Ils laisseraient alors derrière eux des sortes de cercles, à l’emplacement même de leur danse ; on les appelle « älvdanser » : « danses d’elfes » ou « älvringar » : « cercle d’elfes ».

This is how many legends in the Middle Ages would have been born: nymphs, dryads, elves and gnomes would be responsible. Urinating in one of these circles is believed to cause venereal disease. Typically, these circles are traced by a multitude of small mushrooms, but they can also be traced by drawing grass stripped against the ground.
There would be several Elf peoples, such as the High Elves (Elves of Light), Elves of the Woods (Elves of the Woods), Gray Eves (or Moon Elves), Elves of Water (or Undines) … The Dark Elves, or drows, are most often the obscure counterpart of the Elves.

Some literary works …

(Incomplete list)

  • The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien;
  • The Forgotten Realms, R-A Salvatore;
  • The Annals of World Records, Terry Pratchett;
  • The Legacy, Christopher Paolini;
  • Tara Duncan, Sophie Audouin-Mamikonian;
  • The Chronicles of the Lodoss War, Ry? Mizuno (MANGA);
  • The Knights of Emerald, The Heirs of Enkidiev, Anne Robillard;
  • Aïnako, Ariane Charland;
  • Amos Daragon, Bryan Perro (comic);
  • Merry Gentry, L.K. Hamilton;
  • The legendary Patrick Sobral (comic)

Video Games

  • Warcraft;
  • The Elder Scrolls;
  • The Legend of Zelda (called Hyliens);
  • Final Fantasy;
  • Dragon Age;
  • Magic, the assembly;
  • Naheulbeuk Dungeon;
  • Dungeons and Dragons;
  • Warhammer;
  • Warhammer 40,000;
  • The world of Palladium;
  • Shadowrun;
  • Heroes of Might and Magic;
  • The Witcher.

Whether they provoke us nightmares or make us dream, the Elves will always be assimilated, for me, to allies or representations of Nature, those beings who remind men that Mother Nature also has a say and that it will not let anyone deteriorate without flinching or replying. The Elves are the spirits of this Nature that we love so much and that makes us well … provided we take care of her so that she continues to protect us and bring us her blessings.

Article written by S-P Decroix, author of The Princess of the deepest Times, from Lysons editions.

5 Steps to Improve the Memories of Your Dreams

Here is the 5 step method to improve the memories of your dreams

1. Don’t use an alarm clock that has an aggressive ring

If this is necessary for your alarm clock, use it second. Place the alarm on the first dial, softer for your alarm clock, 15 minutes before the “aggressive”. A sudden awakening surely ensures you forget your dreams.

2. Keep your eyes closed and let yourself be overwhelmed by the images and impressions of your night

Write them down or record them without judgment. You will later transcribe your dreams into your journal and decode it. For now, like a fisherman, the important thing is to go up the fish (dreams).

3. Pass back into your mind the people you know

Maybe some of them will reappear and they will have been present during your dreams, which is very likely. Science tells us that we only dream of faces known or encountered in the course of our lives … It is therefore very likely that you have dreamed of a face that is close to you! Check out!

4. Keep your eyes closed and take the different positions you take when you sleep

The fact of resuming physically these different positions gives the possibility to make reappear dream memories …

5. Moisturize yourself!

Before going to bed, place a glass of water next to your bed and drink a sip, telling yourself that you will remember your dreams when you wake up. The first action to do in the morning, keeping your eyes closed, if possible, is to take a sip and let the dreams come to the surface of your consciousness.
I like to sleep personally, with a headband to cut off the morning light and allow me to be still in the privacy of my dreams. This act gives me the chance to internalize myself and not get out too quickly of this state. I feel that the headband is part of my “dream uniform”, now you find yours and adopt the appropriate rituals, like those I have presented here, to remember easily your journeys in the dream dimension !

Article written by Patrick Tremblay, author of Onirikk, Volume 1: the last of the Saïwa, available from Lysons editions.

The Phoenix: the Immortal Firebird

Many myths, fantastic creatures have gone through centuries of history and thus mark our memories almost immutably. It is an animal whose myth is as old as its legendary longevity: the Phoenix.

The Phoenix: the Immortal Firebird

Hello my Marmosets!

I hope I missed you? Yes ? No ? Never mind ! I am still incrusted! Today, I come to make you a little “chat” about this animal that fascinates me as much as the dragon.

The phoenix is a legendary bird, resembling the heron, which has a long longevity that is characterized by its ability to reborn after consuming its own flames. It thus symbolizes the cycles of death, resurrection, but also of nobility. For the latter, I suppose, but as usual, it is only my humble opinion, that this is due to its majestic, almost imperial aspect.

The phoenix, or phoenix, comes from the ancient Greek φοῖνιξ / phoînix, meaning: “purple red”.

This fabulous bird was originally from Arabia and attached to the cult of the Sun in ancient Egypt, where it was also venerated. The narratives describe the phoenix as a sort of eagle adorned with a plumage of brilliant colors. Certainly because of this attachment to the worship of the sun. It is also probably the reason why, it remains in our minds like “the bird of fire” par excellence. When we think “phoenix” do we not immediately think of “immortal” and “fire“?

The phoenix can live for a long time, for centuries (the poor, it must be bored firmly); no tradition mentions an existence of less than five hundred years (nothing but that!). Whereas the shock for him is that suddenly our friend the phoenix reproduces himself: when he feels his end arrive, he builds a nest of aromatic branches and incense (he has the taste … or ought I to say smell), sets it on fire and burns itself in its flames. From the ashes of this pyre arises the new phoenix.

Georges Cuvier (anatomist and paleontologist) saw in him the golden pheasant. It has also been identified with birds of paradise and flamingos.

As with any mystical and fabulous creature, the phoenix has crossed several civilizations, and thus several myths. It is for this reason that we find birds similar to the one that is anchored in our current imagination in the mythologies: Persian under the name of “Simurgh” or “Rokh”, Chinese under the name of “Fenghuang” which means “immortal bird”, Native American with “Thunderbird” or aboriginal in Australia with “Minka bird”.

Through myths

As for the Persian phoenix, the bird has a connotation of lightness, the quintessence of things and beings. Here the animal incarnates the thought opposed to matter, the inner search for man, his “deep self, his spirit.

The Egyptian phoenix (the bénou) and the Greek are the oldest.

Herodotus (Greek historian and geographer) describes it thus:

“It is only in their country that every five hundred years […] its wings are partly golden and partly red, and it is entirely in conformity with the eagle as to the figure and the detailed description …”

However, the point of view of Herodotus contains several inconsistencies. Notably the burial of the father, knowing that there would be only one at a time.

The Moderns (who thought that literary creation consisted of innovating and militating for literature adapted to contemporary times and new artistic forms) saw it more like the Egyptian benou: a heron perched on the benben stone, the sacred stone of the temple solar of Heliopolis on which the first rays of the sun fall. The bird would then be the incarnation of the soul of Re or also the manifestation of Osiris.

As for the Roman phoenix for Ovidus, Pliny and Tacitus, the phoenix decomposes to be reborn, whereas in Martial and Stace the theme of the pyre and its spices appears analogous to the funerary practices of the Romans.

The effigy of the phoenix appears on the coins of Trajan to Constantine I (Roman emperors) and his sons.

Whatever the myths, the legendary phoenix is intimately linked to fire, either by solar attachment or by its own flames.

And religion in all that?

The Midrash Rabbah (set of ten aggadic midrashim collections on the five Torah Books and the five Rolls) reports that when Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree of knowledge all the animals also ate fruit forbidden, and that death was decreed for them all, except one bird called Khôlעוף החול” who did not eat it. That is why the phoenix lives forever. And Rabbi Yannai (or Rabbi Jannai, a wise Jew who lived in the third century) explains that his life takes place as follows: he lives a period of a thousand years at the end of which a fire bursts from his nest and consumes him an egg, and from this egg it grows again.

The phoenix is ​​also one of the most widespread Christian symbols. Numerous literary sources, profane and Christian, evoke the legend of the phoenix. Its symbolism is probably Stoic inspiration: the eternal fire destroys everything and brings it all back to life. It is the symbol of the Resurrection. The Christians have brought to light all that in nature could prepare the acceptance of this mystery. The legend of the phoenix contributes to it, as does the cock that announces the new day: a metaphor for the Christian who awaits the day when Christ returns. From that moment he occupied a prominent position on the bell-tower of the churches.

Whether in myths, religion, or even literature, the phoenix fuels our imagination in a marked way. He is, with the dragon, one of the few fantastic creatures to have not undergone any real physical change. It remains over the years as we imagine it: a kind of flaming eagle that is reborn from its ashes.

Its traces even go back to genesis, you are entitled, my Marmosets, to ask me these questions: has it really existed? Does he exist today? Obviously, I can not answer you. But, as for many of you, I remain passionate about all these wonderful creatures. I do not care if they are real or not, what matters to me is that they make us live our imagination, and that, along with the sirens and all the others, makes them , in my opinion, truly immortal.


The Phoenix in the manga

  • “Phoenix, the bird of fire”, by Osamu Tezuka

  • Ikki, character of “Saint Seya”

  • Marco, character of “One Piece”

  • “The Wings of the Phoenix”, Lim Jin Ju

  • “Phoenix”, Osamu Tezuka


The Phoenix in Music

  • PHÉNIX, the French Heavy Metal band


The Phoenix in Science

  • Phénix (nuclear), the fast breeder reactor located in Marcoule (Gard).

  • Phoenix is a constellation of the southern hemisphere.


The Phoenix in Literature

  • “The Order of the Phoenix”, (Harry Potter) JK Rowling, [NB: Fumesck, the Phoenix of Dumbledore, however appears before this volume.]

  • “The Metamorphoses of the Phoenix in Ancient Christianity,” in Folia Electronica Classica No. 8, Paul-Augustin Deproost.

  • The Bestiary of Christ, Milano, Arche, Louis Charbonneau-Lassay.

  • “The colorful phoenix (from Herodotus to Ambrose of Milan)”, Bulletin of the Association Guillaume Budé vol. 1, Laurence Gosserez

  • “The creation of the world and the phoenix”, Laurence Gosserez.

  • “The Birds Conference,” (Persian tale of the thirteenth century), Sufi Farid al-Din Attar of Nishapur (poet).

  • “The Phoenix Trilogy”, Bernard Simonay

  • “Cycle of the Phoenix”, Sébastien Pennes

  • “The Phoenix Guards”, Steven Brust


See you soon for new discoveries always more fabulous …

S-P Decroix, Author of The Princess Of The Deepest Times.

In the footsteps of the Sirens: from myth to reality!

Hello my Marmosets,

Between the legendary animals, the nocturnal creatures and the various characters that populate our imagination, there is another kind of “mystical entities”: these are the hybrid beings. Half-human, half-animal, these “creatures” often allow us (in our mind and therefore our subconscious) to exteriorize our own fears, our own “bestiality” by giving the human being a semi-animal appearance. These beings resemble us, but are different. Above all my marmosets, know that, concerning the sirens, there are two “myths” (why make it simple when one can make complicated?):

The siren most ingrained in our minds and the one we know best comes from medieval and Scandinavian folklore (contemporary myth): the siren half-woman half-fish.

The second comes from Greek mythology (ancient mythology) where the siren is depicted as a chimera half-woman half-bird.

For these two myths, the origin of the word would come from the Greek: “seirến“, and from the Latin “siren“.

From siren to siren

Their real meaning

“In general, demons of the souls, demons of the dead, tutelary geniuses of tombs, beings in turn or at the same time beneficial and malicious, as many characters of ancient demonology are, the Sirens are all this, and this aspect Is no longer disputed since Weicker’s important work on this subject. “

[Source: Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, “De quand date la Sirène-poisson” (“When did the Mermaid-fish appear?”)]

Their evolution through time

For the Scandinavians, the mermaid is a formidable monster called Margygr (the “giant sea”). This monster looked tall, with a terrible face, a pointed forehead, wide eyes, a large mouth and wrinkled cheeks. Yes, we are far from Ariel the little mermi super siren of Disney… sorry girls if I just break the image you made of her? … what? I’m a bit sadistic? Think about it, maybe a little!

According to Édouard Brasey, a French novelist, these oceanic creatures look in a mirror, symbol of the planet Venus in astronomy. Aphrodite, goddess of Love born of sea foam, is often represented with a mirror of gold. Even if she has no fish tail,

Aphrodite would be “the ancestor of sirens and protector of sailors”.

As with all the creatures of our imagination, the physical appearance we are giving them today is a succession of more or less important transformations over time. The Nordic siren, therefore, does not escape the rule!

In the medieval bestiaries, sirens are described as women “from head to pelvis” and fish from “basin to bottom with claws and wings”, thus merging the fabulous traditions of the Greek and German mythologies. Their image is engraved on the steles, tombs or Romanesque churches where they personify the soul of the dead as in ancient Egypt.

The Norwegian work “Konungs skuggsjá” describes her as a lovable creature, resembling a woman up to the waist, for “this monster had big nipples on her chest, like a woman.” She would also have long arms and long hair, and her face seemed human.

In the seventh century, the English monk Aldhelm of Sherborne describes them as fish-tailed virgins covered with scales. (So good!)

These two representations will coexist until the fifteenth century when the flying sirens (of the Greek myth) leave definitely the place, at least in our minds, a pretty woman with long hair and fish tail.

I would point out that at the time when all these myths permeate our imagination, women, or feminine beings, have mostly long hair. I think, and it is only my opinion (That’s it, I think I’m starting to play it smart to death again?), That the hair, like the nipples, are not only a feminine attribute, but also a “sexual” attribute having To attract, from a purely physical point of view, the “male” in its… nets… (yeah, I know, I’m too strong to take you where I want!). And then I can understand that it is more pleasant for the male sex to look at a pretty girl even if she has a fish tail (each her tastes) rather than a humanoid that squalls for a long time and goes away “at the wing” to the slightest annoyance (Alexia said, I remind you, that I was armored with humor: woman bird, at the wing, it’s rather funny, is not it?). Fine. I close the parenthesis.

Johannes of Cuba, a German naturalist, makes them live in gulfs at the bottom of the seas. As for Jacob Van Maerlant, a Flemish writer, says that one can find them as well in the seas as in the rivers. I suppose the latter has relied on the folklore of many European legends which mention sirens, living not only in the sea, but also in rivers and small streams. [] They are then called sirens, but are also sometimes called “naudia” (nymphs) in Germanic beliefs, “dragas” or “donas d’aiga” (water ladies) ) In Occitania, etc.

Note that anglophones call them siren, the sirens antique (half-women, half-birds), and mermaid, the sirens scandinavian (with a tail of fish).

The origins and first traces…

From woman-bird to woman-fish

The bird-woman appeared in the first half of the 8th century BC, gradually giving way to the woman-fish.

The origin of the sirens, as we know them, probably comes from the narratives of navigators; The sailors might have mistaken the sirens with manatees (large aquatic mammals [their head reminds me of a dolphin]) and / or dugongs also called “sea cows“.

Well, I do not know what you think my marmosets, but to confuse a marine mammal whatever it is with a female creature (fish tail, we understood, thank you) must still be drunk a few liters of mead, or… have drunk a few liters of mead! Because physically, it’s still not the same thing!

In 1403, near Edam in Holland, two young girls captured a “specimen”. It was in fact a woman, found naked in the water and speaking no known language, and who was nicknamed the “siren of Edam”.

Christopher Columbus himself reports that he would have crossed three sirens near the coast of Santo Domingo. Disappointed, he would have said that they were not as beautiful as in the writings!

(Sorry my guy, but you can not have everything in life: “discover America” ​​and fish the beautiful fish). On the other hand, American sailors would have seen it near the Sandwich Islands [Hawaii], (sandwich like tuna sandwich … ok … there, it’s not funny) “of great beauty that yielded nothing to the most beautiful women “. It is my opinion that it was not the same sirens. Especially that between the two “locations” almost 400 years ago. Unless in the meantime the sirens have embellished.

The influence of Ulysses on their transformation into women-fishes

A Megarian bowl discovered in Athens in 1947 during the excavations of the Agora, and a Roman lamp (belonging to the Canterbury Museum) illustrate a passage of the song where Ulysses is seduced by the daughters of Achéloos and both make their sirens Of women with tails of marine animals. And hang on well: the lamp dates from the 1st-2nd century AD, and the bowl of the second century BC!

The siren depicted on the Roman lamp is a woman of long, curly hair, with a prolonged torso, not a real caudal fin, but by the volute tail, smooth and without scales, of a marine reptile.

[Source: Odette Touchefeu-Meynier, “De quand date la Sirène-poisson ?” (“When did the Mermaid-fish appear?”)]


The legend of the siren-fish has spread to Haiti where it is known as “Mami Wata” (now, after several changes over time), where it would be assimilated to a sort of divinity of fertilization. But she would also be the “Mother of the Waters“, fear of the fishermen, symbol of the foster mother and destructive ocean. The cult of Mami Wata has spread to the Atlantic coast of Togo through Nigeria, Cameroon and Congo.

Today we owe our modern siren to Hans Christian Andersen, Danish writer, thanks to his story where the siren is no longer the terrible temptress but becomes a romantic heroine in search of love.


[To know: In Greek mythology, the descendants of Triton, son of Poseidon, called “tritons“, are considered the masculine equivalent of sirens. But, unlike them, this class of marine creatures could be male or female!]


Between myth and reality

A fascinating figure

The siren inflames the spirits, sometimes the hearts. She enchants us so much by her bewitching voice, as by all the myths that accompany her. (Girls in power!) However, the mysteries were such that scientists tried to find a rational answer.

From the 16th century, “dried” reproductions were exhibited in fairs and museums! (Berk!) In the seventeenth century, in the Netherlands, a certain Pavio would have dissected a siren in the presence of Johannes de Laet, a renowned doctor, which would have brought credit to their real existence. The head and chest were human, however, from the navel to the foot the creature was shapeless… but without tail.

The human being being what it is, it’s reported that in the nineteenth, Japan, India or China, hideous monsters were made with a monkey bust and a fish tail. It is obvious that this kind of “mutation” does not, in general, allow the survival of the child.

When science is involved!

In 1758, the sirens were briefly noted in the Systema naturae of Carl von Linné [] (a work which founded the scientific classification of living organisms), but this taxon was soon abandoned by scientific classifications for lack of specimens or Credible descriptions [].

Although the existence of sirens has not been considered by scientists since the 19th century, some have continued to take an interest in it, with more or less seriousness, such as ocean scientist Karl Banse.

According to him, sirens would be marine mammals and therefore would not have scales, and their corpulence would limit their distribution to the warmest waters of the tropics, they would have an agricultural way of life (algae, molluscs). They would eventually supplement their diet with human flesh, which would explain their habit of charming the sailors and taking them to the depths.

Conversely, some studies have addressed biological problems that prevent the existence of beings such as sirens. Several physiological parameters make it impossible for an animal of such an appearance to be viable, such as without going into details, temperature, etc. Other scientific possibilities suggest marine primates, but this is another story…

We can, as in the case of many fantastic creatures, ask us whether or not the siren (Nordic or not) really existed (or really exists). However, if it seems that eating fish helps us to have a good memory, some Asian writings report that eating siren flesh would make immortal!

I’ll stop you right now! Do not rush on pieces of breaded fish or various fish-based burgers, there is little chance that they contain siren flesh! Rather, precipitate yourself on the books and various media that relate more or less their legends: you will see: reading does good as much for the mind as for the memory!

Where to find them?

Literature:

  • The Little Mermaid, Hans Christian Andersen, 1876.
  • Peter Pan, written by J. M. Barrie, 1911 (including sirens, among others)
  • Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, 2000, characters of sirens are approached. (The book and the film)
  • Mermaid, written by Carolyn Turgeon, 2011 (new literary).
  • The Kingdom of Lenacia, written by Priska Poirier, 2011 (series of popular literary works)
  • The siren, Kiera Cass and Madeleine Nasalik, 2016.

Movies – TV Series:

  • The Little Mermaid / Rusalochka, Ivan Aksenchuk, 1968.
  • The Little Mermaid / Malá mořská víla, CSR; Miroslava
  • Safránková – Mermaid and Libuse Safránková, 1976
  • The Little Mermaid / The Little Mermaid / Russalotschka / Rusalka, Bulgaria / RSS, Vika Novikova – Mermaid, 1976.
  • The Little Mermaid, Tomoharu Katsumata, 1979.
  • Splash, 1984.
  • The Prince and the Mermaid, television series, 1995,
  • Sirens, 2003 (telefilm).
  • H2O, 2006 (Australian television series)
  • Aquamarine, 2006.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean: The Fountain of Youth, 2011.
  • Mako Mermaids, 2013 (Australian TV series)

Mangas – cartoon – Animated features:

  • The Little Mermaid, from Disney Studios, 1989.
  • Mermaid Melody, 2003.
  • Mermaidia, 2006 (Barbie’s animated feature)
  • Ponyo on the cliff, Hayao Miyazaki, 2009.

By immersing ourselves in all these fabulous archives and manuscripts (whatever they may be), we appropriate, during the time of their reading, a little of that immortality which, through all these fabulous creatures, passes through the centuries and Will survive tomorrow…

The writings remain, the words fly away … but the mystery still reigns …

See you soon my Marmosets!

Article written by S-P Decroix (author of The Princess Of The Deepest Times) and Leandro De Carvalho (author of Little Red Riding Hood: A New World).

The new sorcerers and witches, who are they really?

Sorcerers and witches: beings that fascinate us… or scare!

Like the author S-P Decroix, I would like us to look at fascinating beings: sorcerers and witches. Why did I choose to distinguish between sorcerers and witches? When one evokes the witches, we imagine unconsciously an old madman on his broom flying or around an immense cauldron. Conversely, for sorcerers, it is more difficult to get an idea. For my part, I visualize a rather young being, all dressed in black, casting any spell with a magic wand or just by simple thought.

Curious, isn’t it?

Let’s develop…

What is a sorcerer or a witch?

From the popular Latin “sortiarius”, derived from “fate,” originally designating a process of divination, then “destiny, fate.”

A sorcerer or a witch is a witchcraft practitioner. It’s a mortal being, like you and me, with powers we called supernatural and very close to Nature and entities. A sorcerer is a being with knowledge of the occult sciences, it’s an intermediary between the world of the visible and the invisible. It’s said that their powers would be hereditary from generation to generation and they would even be formally forbidden to fall in love so as not to be disturbed by their emotions during magical practices that they would sometimes realize in total nudity.

Some would want to help human beings, protect the planet and living beings and others, having yielded to their desire for revenge or thirst for power, would want to make their lives hard and use their gifts to satisfy their every desire.

Witchcraft is a magic, typically drawn from plant energy, lunar cycles, seasons, entities and essentially practiced in the form of rituals, magic formulas, prayers and spells. It should be noted that the term witchcraft is perceived very pejoratively and applies in a very different way from one society to another, according to beliefs, traditions, religions and rites.

Long associated with the Devil by religions, they suffer from a bad image due to their ability to defy space, time and matter, predict the future, modify events, change the destiny of people, Influencing and manipulating others solely by their thoughts… gifts that would be lent more to the work of the Devil than to that of God…

It is also necessary to distinguish different magic: white magic (only for the purpose of helping man and to cure his ills), red magic (magic called love, thanks to spells, love philters .. .), dark magic (obscure, for revenge, harm, hurt, or even kill), elemental magic (appealing to the spirits of nature, controlling fire, air, water and land, in particular) and there are other appellations to categorize practices (psychic, natural, invocative, etc.).

Witchcraft in History

From antiquity, sorcerers and witches appear in the Bible, and are condemned by Moses. They are also mentioned in some texts dating back to ancient Egypt, and evoked in Homer’s Odyssey. Apart from these references, it is complicated to know more, as witchcraft was already firmly repressed at that time (the practice was forbidden and condemned to death).

At the beginning of the Middle Ages, in France, Clovis promulgated a law (the “Lex Salica“) which condemns those practicing sorcery to pay heavy fines. For Charlemagne, they deserve rather imprisonment. In 1326, Pope John XXII defined witchcraft as a heresy. The first witch hunts took place in 1484, on the orders of Pope Innocent VIII. In 1486 is published the Malleus Maleficarum (the “hammer of the witches”). This treatise, which describes the witches, their practices, how to capture them and eliminate them, was immensely successful, so that he knew thirty-four re-editions between 1487 and 1669.

Waves of arrests were taking place throughout Europe, mainly in France, Switzerland, Germany, Spain and Italy. The victims, 80% women (sometimes teenage girls), are tortured to confess their sins, and very often sent to the stake.

The number of process is estimated between 100 and 200 000 between 1480 and 1650. The number of executions remains difficult to quantify, however, some historians estimate between 40 000 and 100 000.

In England, the witch-hunt was less severe, but peaked in 1645.

One of the best known tests to detect a witch was to tie her to a chair and throw her in the water, then wait to see if she came to the surface! If she drowned: they thought she was not, but she would die anyway, and if she did not drown (which never happened) she was considered a witch and was going to be burned afterwards . In any case, these women ended up drowned…

Practices attributed to witches:

  • Pact with the Devil;
  • Sabbath (nocturnal assemblies of witches)
  • Flying on a broom (especially at night);
  • Use of Dark Magic;
  • Animal metamorphoses;
  • Cannibal meals of children.

The witch-hunt mainly ended in the 1680s. In the United States, precisely in Salem, a famous trial led to the death of twenty-five people and the imprisonment of many others in 1692. The law against Witchcraft in England was abolished in 1736. However, some women are still accused of practicing sorcery and sentenced to death. Anna Göldin will be one of the last in Europe (in Switzerland, 18 June 1782).

In addition to two isolated cases, in 1826 and 1856, witch-hunt will no longer be talked about in France.

Since the mid-twentieth century, witchcraft has developed in the Western world, through the practice of certain neo-traditional religions (the best known being Wicca). Today, witchcraft is widely practiced in Africa by three types of people:

  • The Thakatha (seeking to harm others);
  • The Sangoma (divine);
  • The Inyanga (conjures the evil spell). (In contrast to Thakatha and Sangoma, it is almost always a man).

Many countries in Africa and the Middle East still punish the practice of witchcraft, from simple fines to the death penalty!

The voodoo doll, a doll depicting a person’s mind using several needles to cast a spell, is the most widely known and popular magic practice object.

Finally

The image of sorcerers and witches has nevertheless been revived in many works of fiction. Whether with the nice and pretty sisters Halliwell (Charmed series) or with the heroic Harry Potter (literary saga)…

The New Sorcerers

In reality, sorcerers and witches have always existed at all times, but they are nevertheless very discreet, speak little of their activities, adapt perfectly to society, express themselves freely without being considered demented and are much less associated with the Devil as in ancient times.

Today, many trades that are freely and legally practiced would have been prohibited at the time and these people imprisoned or sentenced to death, such as psychics, psychics, hypnotists, mentalists, NLP specialists. They do not practice witchcraft, but they also act as intermediaries between this world and the afterlife, between the conscious and the unconscious, between the rational and the irrational, or they use scientific techniques using the psyche Or techniques not yet explained by science and beyond the understanding of most people, such as magnetizers, healers and other people with extraordinary abilities. Sorcerers are no longer just those marginalized who are excluded from society, they can hide from everywhere, especially in secret societies that are well known for practicing the occult sciences and other mysterious rituals that are not brought to our knowledge!

Moreover, the practice of witchcraft is no longer considered as heresy, but as an activity that is part of folklore, in traditions, beliefs; It is tolerated and is no longer the object of persecutions or witch hunts, at least in the majority of the terrestrial globe!

The image of the sorcerer or evil witch is far behind us, henceforth the “new” sorcerer or witch is more assimilated to the divine, the beyond and Nature. They aspire to show us that everyone can connect to the Source who created life and who is called magic! And they themselves say it today: each of us has the capacity to exploit his extrasensory gifts and to communicate with his share of divinity! To do this, we must get closer to Mother Nature!

Some people who would not call themselves “sorcerers” (although they might have been called this way) would today insist on the need to “live in full consciousness“, and is not this a desire Reconnect with that magic and those faculties that these sorcerers and wizards of yesteryear seemed to manifest and wanted to share? Mindfulness invites us to see life differently and encourages us to exploit more our intuition, our psyche, to believe in miracles, to live new experiences by refocusing on the importance of our thoughts and actions that could transform considerably our reality! Music, books and any work of the spirit also invites us to this opening… (Coincidence?) Hmm… it looks like magic… in French, the word magic, “magie” also rymes with the words “l’âme agit” wich means: the soul acts… (with special effects in Less, I grant you, but emotion and influence are there!) Perhaps it is just our definition of magic that is to be reviewed … Anyway:

Sorcerer has become a profession, whether challenged or not, is recognized by law (in France, perhaps in other countries too?) And there is no barrier to the practice of witchcraft. Witchcraft is considered as a domain of belief (a sorcerer can act as a priest, for example)! Free to everyone to believe or not in magic, however, there are still sorcerers and their condition has evolved since those times… just like mentalities!


In the literature (best known works – non exhaustive list):

  • The witch of the Closet with the brooms (Pierre Gripari);
  • The Harry Potter saga (J.K.Rowling);
  • The saga of the Pays d’Oz (Lyman Franck Baum);
  • Saga of the Witches (Anne Rice);
  • At the crossroads of the worlds (Philip Pullman).

To conclude…

You will have noticed that the McBowen brothers of Nayra are special wizards! Here is a short summary about sorcery described in the saga:

Transformation into Wizards or Witches:

  • Drink the blood of a sorcerer so that the magic energy circulates in the soon mutated body;
  • Cast a spell on a full moon evening (which is a call to the dark and demonic forces);
  • To commit a sacrifice (the obligation to do evil in order to receive powers from dark forces).

Capacity / powers:

  • Immortality (sorcerers can, however, kill each other, a human being can also achieve this by showing intolerable cruelty);
  • Influencing people through thought;
  • Appearance and instantaneous disappearance;
  • The share of blackness inherent in each one is multiplied tenfold;
  • Cast spells, hear from afar, telekinesis and read in minds (reserved for wizards and high-level witches).

Everyone is free to create their magical beings, to remodel them according to their desires, to believe or not to the impossible, sorcerers or witches… Because after all, in matters of magic and imagination, freedom Is total and infinite… just like the power of our mind!

Perhaps the new sorcerers and witches are all those beings who aspire to fill our world with magic, no matter what rituals they use to improve our daily lives, as long as the soul acts for our own Great good! The new wizards are much closer to life than to death… So don’t be afraid by their spells!

Article written by Maud Wlek (author of Nayra) and Leandro De Carvalho (author of Living In Harmony).

Jack Kerouac, on his breton road…

An Icon Of American Literature

Jack Kerouac. The first time I saw the name of this writer I knew nothing about him, it was a few years ago in the memoirs of a famous Montana author. He was referring to Jack Kerouac as an icon of American literature, and I was surprised that a family name with such Breton resonance could associate with America.

A few days later I was in my hands. On the road, the Beat Generation’s leading book, realizing with enthusiasm that I had just found the kind of literature I had been waiting for. Long descriptions of landscapes, a style of spontaneous writing mixed with great lyricism where travel also rhymes with melancholy. The fact that this icon of literature is as Breton, as I am, being the icing on the cake.

He is considered one of the most important American authors of the 20th century. His style of writing has inspired American singers Tom Waits and Bob Dylan.

On the road, his most famous novel is an ode to the great outdoors, to the epic adventure towards the west, and to the discovery of new worlds.

The Truth About Its Origins

Breton origins that the writer has long sought to understand and document throughout his life in particular in 1965 where, a few years before his death, he visited the city of BREST after having found in the National Archives of thin information about his ancestor Maurice -Louis Le Bris de Kervoac. Information that unfortunately will not suffice to shed light on its history.

The surname of his ancestor is actually Urbain-François Le Bihan de Kervoac.

Son of notaries from Huelgoat, who, targeted by justice for charges of thefts, decides to go into exile in Quebec. An ancestor who, to protect himself from justice, will constantly hide his true identity, thus preventing the writer from pinpointing his genealogy.

His demons and successes

In 1946, his father died and took refuge in books. His writings became increasingly autobiographical and he worked frantically on the tapestry of On the Road, from his numerous notebooks of preparatory notes. This “introspective writing leads him to wonder about the foundations of his evil of life” and Kerouac realizes that he has “a subconscious desire to fail, a kind of wish of death. “

Having problems with alcohol and drugs, during 10 years his writings will be refused by the publishing houses. His income became very low and his addiction to alcohol and amphetamines reached a climax. He plans to stop writing several times, in vain.

In 1955, in San Francisco, Kerouac made an important encounter: Gary Snyder, an enthusiast of hiking and Japanese philosophy. The two men, accompanied by a bookseller, John Montgomery, make an expedition at an altitude of 3600 meters to the peak of Matterhorn. Kerouac is introduced to meditation and haiku, short Japanese poems that evoke a feeling, a situation, an atmosphere. The encounter with himself and with the simplicity, the absence of excesses and drugs or alcohol makes Kerouac decide to begin a “new life”.

2 years later, his novel On the Road is published and the success is immediate. According to the poet Kenneth Rexroth, he is even “the most famous author in America.

At the end of his life, covered with debts, Urbain-Francois Le Bihan of Kervoac died leaving a wife and three children who fathered the descendants of Jack Kerouac among them Jean Baptiste Kerouac, French-Canadian grandfather of Jack Kerouac who emigrates In the USA, thus making his grandson the most Breton American writers.

In 2012, the Brazilian film-event Walter Salles, produced by Francis Ford Coppola, is presented in official selection at the Cannes Film Festival, the first exhibition in France of the original text of the mythical On The Road. Reclus of the world and without a penny, but with an archive that will be valued at more than 10 million euros …

In spite of his demons and though he died prematurely due to his excesses, Jack Kerouac brilliantly succeeded in impressing minds by his genius and inspiring positively many people on his way, beyond the origins and the borders…

Article written by Jude Castel, author of destination and wandering.

The Inspirational Life Of Stephen King

At 4, he attends a terrible drama… and writes his first stories at the age of 6 years old!

Today, he is a great master of horror and has sold more than 350 million copies worldwide!

Discover his inspiring life in this short video!

Like, Comment & Share!

Article written by Leandro De Carvalho (Author of Living In Harmony).

The Voynich manuscript: a very mysterious book

Voynich’s manuscript: I have always been fascinated by this enigma. Being an unconditional fan of the fantastic and the mysterious, it could not be otherwise. This manuscript is a secret all by itself, pages after pages, jealously guarding the smallest piece of truth. Lara Croft and Sydney Fox would gladly pull it off, trying to uncover its true story – Indiana Jones, seeming to have already done it…

How can a simple block of leaves, connected together, arouse so much wonder and mystery at the same time?

After all, it’s just a book! Yes, but precisely:

What is this book? Its goal ? When was it written? Who is the author ?

Even today, all these questions remain in suspense, lost between mysticism and more down-to-earth theories. However, despite these many assumptions, all doubts remain allowed. That is what fascinates so much.

The discovery of the manuscript

The manuscript bears the name of the man who discovered it in 1912, near Rome, in a Roman religious congregation: Wilfrid M. Voynich. Composed of 234 pages, this book is made of vellum (dead-calf skin, worked in parchment). It would seem, according to pagination, that the work is missing 13 folios. Presumably, the latter were already missing when Voynich acquired the manuscript. Written in a totally unknown language, the book contains many illustrations, mainly plants, unidentifiable.

A carbon-14 analysis showed that it was manufactured between 1404 and 1438. Apart from what we know from our technologies, the manuscript only appeared in history in 1665. In fact, a letter dated from this time, Jan Marek Marci (scientist and philosopher) indicates that the book was bought by Rudolf II of the Holy Roman Empire (Prince of the House of Austria – great royal family). According to a correspondence study, the oldest owner of this book was Georg Baresch, an alchemist living in Prague in the 17th century. According to the hypothesis advanced, the manuscript will be held by the Roman College between 1648 and 1912.

The only signs reflecting the antiquity of the Voynich manuscript – the text remains incomprehensible – can be found in the illustrations, more specifically in the dresses and headdresses of the characters, as well as in the two castles that appear. These elements are characteristic of the European style, between 1450 and 1520. Although these illustrations remain mysterious, they were classified by researchers into six sections:

  • Herbarium;
  • Astronomy;
  • Biology;
  • Cosmology;
  • Chemotherapy;
  • Recipes.

Even the American cryptologist William Friedman, known for having successfully deciphered the code used by the Japanese army during the Second World War, failed in his attempt to understand Voynich’s manuscript.

The main theories

The Voynich manuscript would be an encyclopedic work listing therapeutic plants, as well as substances of animal and mineral origin.

Some hypotheses suggest that it would be a medieval recipe to create the philosopher’s stone.

In 1970, a cryptographer of the US Navy said that the book had been written by several authors. This conclusion has recently been challenged by a writing expert.

Many authors have been attributed to this book, some of which have been discarded recently thanks to carbon-14 dating, others by the results of research – and for some, the mystery remains: Roger Bacon (author dismissed but long evoked John Dee, Edward Kelley, Anthony Ascham, Jacobus Sinapius, Jan Marci, Raphael Mnishovsky, Wilfrid Voynich (also dismissed by correspondence dated 1639).

An undecodable manuscript

The manuscript would be written in a European language, intentionally hidden by letter-coding.

Words would be encoded so that they can be found using a dictionary or an encryption table.

Much of the text would make no sense, hiding information in unnoticed details.

The language used would be invented from scratch.

The linguist Jacques Guy suggested that the manuscript used an exotic natural language, written with an invented alphabet. This theory would be the most coherent, and historically plausible.

The manuscript would come from Mexico and not from Europe, some plants appearing to resemble Mesoamerican species.

Many people think that this manuscript is purely an imposture. However, this hypothesis has been ruled out by all the studies carried out on the book.

The very fragile Voynich manuscript aroused so much curiosity in the world that the Beinecke Library where it was preserved (Yale University, United States) decided to cede – to a secret amount – the reproduction rights to a house Of Spanish edition, specializing in the publication of ancient manuscript facsimiles. Thus, 898 replicas will be produced, for a price of 7000 to 8000 euros each. For the manufacture of the first facsimile, the process will take no less than eighteen months.
Skeptics and more convinced must all admit a fact: the Voynich manuscript contains many mysteries. For to the questions “who?”, “when?”, “where?”, “why?”, no one can answer with absolute certainty.

And you, are you subjugated by the secrets that hide this old work? What are your theories?

Article written by Maud Wlek (Author of Nayra).

Did the vampires really exist?

Vampires are emblematic figures that form an integral part of our culture. These are mythological creatures entered into legend since the dawn of time… Discover their origins and where to find them through this exciting article! Did the vampires really exist?

It’s S-P DECROIX that tells you better about it…

Hello girls, boys and marmosets!

What? There are no boys among you? Ah! Ah! I know, I know, not even funny! Alexia told me I was funny. It’s really nice of you Alexia, but my sense of humor is to see again. So, from today, I will call you “marmosets“.

So, after my article on the dragons I asked myself: “But what am I going to tell them to marmosets next time? “Ah! If you knew all that crosses my mind, you would take your legs to your necks! In short, let’s go back to our monsters and various creatures.

“What’s she going to talk the lady?”

(OK the sentence is super null, but hey, you will have to do with!)

After jargoning about the “dragon”, I decided to talk to you about “creatures of the night”, but which one? No! Not John Travolta! So? You found ? Yes? No?

The Vampires!

Origins

Yes, with their pointed teeth and their pronounced taste for blood, vampires are the creatures of the night par excellence! The origins of this legendary creature are found in ancient myths and diverse throughout the world, but become popular mainly on the European continent.

“Vampire” comes from the German “Vampir”, which comes from the Hungarian “vámpir”, which in most Slavic languages is a word designating a bat.

The vampire is part of the great “ghost” family. According to the different folklore and the most common superstition, this undead man feeds on the blood of the living to derive his life force. Its victims die of having been emptied of their blood or they undergo certain conditions (blood exchange, placing underground with its “genitor” are some of the best-known examples), in vampires, but only after their death: “they die and live again!”

It is Arnold Paole, a Serb, who was the first to be called “vampire” in the eighteenth century.

You may think that it is the one that everyone calls “Dracula” who was the first vampire, but not… Vlad III Basarab, of his real name, knows indeed an important celebrity during his lifetime: the merchants Saxons of Transylvania and the king of Hungary, Matthias Corvin, make him a cruel ruler who impales his enemies, which earned him nicknames such as “The Impaler” or “Drăculea” (“son of the devil” or “son of the dragon”). Inspired by the nickname of Vlad III Basarab, the figure of the Count of Dracula was invented by Bram Stocker for his novel in 1897, which is why Vlad III Basarab is now assimilated to a vampire but he wasn’t one!

The contemporary myth of the vampire would be a sort of “superposition” of several other supernatural creatures from various European folklore, especially Slavic. Some authors have enumerated precursors: spirits, demons, or ghosts in turn, possessed or not (incomplete list): the “visitor”, the “hungry”, the “nightmare”, the “strangler”, the “chewer” (well yes, they chew us gently the neck with their small pointed canines… ok… really must I stop!) And finally the returning to animal form (Bat? Hum … no comment).

Characteristics of Vampires

This undead creature is universally known to feed on the blood of the living as soon as night falls, for, as I said before, to take their vital force and remain immortal! In fact, this is not entirely accurate, as it is for the Vampire to no longer be subject to old age. Other elements of folklore are well entrenched in our minds: the coffin in which he takes refuge during the day to rest and the cemetery: “let’s go home!” (Honestly each his “trip”, me personally, the cemeteries at night, it’s not my trip…).

In many legends, the vampire also feeds on human excrements and flesh, including his own: it is the automation that includes not only his flesh but also his clothes (if you had just eaten, excuse). This detail seems to be verified by old records of stories of shrouds found chewed. (I warned you: Vampires love to chew on).

Of course, what also characterizes the Vampire is his legendary pair of … what? From sharp canines! (Stop having ideas misplaced!) The clothing appearance, it would have been built in the cinematographic and theatrical folklore, in particular his famous cloak.

Some mystical powers are also given to him:

He hypnotizes his victims, seduces them, reads in thoughts, changes into mist, bat, sometimes in wolf or, according to legends, he controls them.

It is also this particular link with the wolf that makes that generally when one thinks of the Vampire, we often associate the Werewolf.

It seems that killing a “master vampire” or a “vampire-genitor” frees those he has transformed or sometimes his children die with him.

The Vampire if he becomes more powerful, fast, and resistant with age, would be “indisposed” by the smell of garlic, wild rose or hawthorn. Some objects would be able to repel it: the mythical crucifix, the rosary, the holy water and the mirror (since it cannot be reflected in it). He cannot walk on consecrated soils (Church, etc.). The legend also says that a Vampire cannot enter a house without being invited.

Bram Stoker’s work, Dracula, was first published in 1897 and is still popular today.

As the Vampire is an undead, he is already dead! So to kill him, it was necessary to rack one’s brains! (Ah, Ah!) Of course, decapitation is the most effective way to eliminate it, followed by a stake in the heart, a nail in the head (definitely) or a cremation in good form!

References to the Vampire

(Incomplete lists, you understand that they are too long…)


Literature:

  • Dracula by Bram Stocker.
  • The Vampyre by John Stagg
  • The Vampire by John William Polidori
  • The Vourdalak Family (published in Tolstoy’s Stories of the Living Dead)
  • History of the Pale Lady, novel by Alexandre Dumas (1849).
  • The Knight of Darkness by Paul Féval (1860)
  • Lokis of Prosper Mérimée.
  • The Horla (in its first version) by Guy de Maupassant
  • The Parasite of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
  • Vampire Chronicles, Interview with a vampire by Anne Rice

Movies:

  • Nosferatu the vampire by Friedrich Murnau, in 1922
  • Vampyr, or the strange adventure of David Gray in 1932
  • The Dracula Nightmare, by Terence Fisher in 1958.
  • Polanski’s Ball of the Vampires in 1967 (parody)
  • Tony Scott’s Predators in 1983
  • Vampire, did you say vampire ? Tom Holland in 1985 and Tommy
  • Lee Wallace in 1988 Dracula by Francis Ford Coppola in 1992
  • Interview with a vampire by Neil Jordan in 1994
  • Craig Gillespie’s Fright Night in 2011.

Cinematographic and television series:

  • The Blade Saga
  • The Underworld Saga
  • The Twilight Saga
  • Buffy the Vampire Slayer
  • Angel
  • Vampires Diaries
  • Supernatural (Ahhhhhh the best series in my senses, which has many other creatures!)
  • True Blood
  • Being Human
  • The Clan of the Damned
  • The Originals (I love it!)

Mangas / Comics:

  • Vampire Hunter D (manga)
  • Vampire Princess Miyu (manga)
  • Vampire Knight (manga)
  • Hellsing (manga)
  • Requiem, Chevalier Vampire (BD)
  • The Prince of the Night (BD)
  • 30 days of night (comics)

Video Games:

  • Castlevania (since 1986),
  • Legacy of Kain (since 1996)
  • Bram Stoker’s Dracula, in 1993.
  • The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion
  • The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind
  • Dracula: Resurrection, Dracula 2: The Last Sanctuary, Dracula 3: The Way of the Dragon
  • The Masquerade (roleplaying)
  • Dracula’s Fury (board game).

We may never really know if the vampires existed as they are described to us, but is there smoke without fire? One thing is certain: those who inspired these creatures did indeed exist, but they undoubtedly renounced their immortality in order to rest in peace! Their legend, in any case, it, continues to persist in time… for eternity!

Article written by S-P DECROIX.